EMAC is a kind of MAA that facilitates the sharing of aid between states in the event of an emergency, including natural or man-made disasters. EMAC was ratified by the U.S. Congress in 1996.3 It is the most common MAA in the United States; EMAC has been adopted by all states, the District of Columbia, and some territories.4 EMAC does not replace federal aid, but acts to supplement federal funds or provide resources if an event does not warrant federal support. EMAC is triggered by a requesting state by an official emergency declaration from the governors and a request for assistance, sent by the National Emergency Management Association (NEMA), the organization that manages EMAC.4, to meet the request and provide the requested resources. Under the EMAC, the requesting state is responsible for the state`s compensation for the costs incurred.5 EMAC also deals with licensing, liability and compensation issues for staff assigned as a result of an EMAC application. Persons who grant aid under the Covenant are considered to be agents of the state requesting for the purpose of non-activity and immunity; No State of support, nor its officers, employees or others, hired by the State through the EMAC, is held responsible for an act or omission in good faith.6 Any intentional misconduct, gross negligence or recklessness are excluded from EMAC immunity. Since EMAC applies only to public servants or employees and other persons employed by the state through EMAC, the protection and reciprocity of licences does not automatically apply to volunteers who provide services outside the EMAC. Volunteers must be turned into temporary agents to provide coverage under the EMAC. Similarly, local governments and their collaborators are not EMAC parties, unless they are explicitly considered state forces through an MAA with the state. The Model State-County Mutual Aid Deployment Contract is a model intergovernmental contract, some states have developed national mutual assistance systems that allow municipalities to request and provide assistance within the state.7 Under the type of MAA, a state legislator must formally authorize a state`s participation in the agreement and establish it in law, as in the case of the EMAC (see below). State law or regulation may also set out legal requirements governing the creation and operation of aid and assistance agreements in the state in general.
These state-specific requirements may affect internal agreements between localities and other parties, as well as intergovernmental agreements between the state and other parties. The federal government, states, municipalities and other organizations involved in assistance agreements have developed specific guidelines, protocols and definitions for typing resources that prescribe aid. In addition to the legal requirements for aid management, ongoing training, implementation and updating of the assistance agreements and policies and protocols they implement is a key element in ensuring effective mutual assistance. Mutual assistance agreements (MAA) and other types of assistance agreements before, during and after an emergency meeting facilitate the rapid mobilization of personnel, equipment and stocks. Agreements can be concluded at several levels: between public and local authorities; between a state and localities in the state; between two or more states in a region; between states and tribes; internationally between states and neighbouring jurisdictions in Canada or Mexico.